Russian Plain, in the Southern Cis-Urals. Orenburg region, Krasnogvardeysky district, in the 500-900 meters to the North of the village Kraskovo.
The research area is located in the East of the Russian plate, part of the ancient Eastern European platform, within the limits of Obshchy Syrt highland ridge, which is a Plast-tier plain with the remains of surface alignment in the Central part of the Orenburg region, where studies were spent. The parent rocks of the studied kurgan cemetery present as a mixture of red-colored rocks of tatar layer of the permian system.
The climate of the area is continental, characterized by a large amplitude fluctuations of mean annual temperature (15°C) and July (+21 °C). The average annual rainfall for the district is 360-410 mm per year. Cyclones come here from the Atlantic and are accompanied by nasty weather. Anticyclones bring cold Arctic air and sometimes, mostly in summer, warm tropical air. Clear frosty weather is related with anticyclones in winter and dry and hot weather in summer and spring.
The area is located in the subzone of Northern feather-grass steppe on ordinary chernozem. According to the soil map of the European part of the USSR (ed. L.I Prasolova), the study area belongs to the area of chernozems ordinary clayey and loamy or chernozem segregation.
The kurgans in the cemetery Krasikovo I attributed by archaeologists to Repin (early) stage of pit culture of the early bronze age of the southern Urals. The time of functioning of the burial ground was short, within 100-200 years. According to radiocarbon Dating and soil properties, the following sequence of construction of mounds was established: the first was erected mound 1, then – mounds 3 and 4, the last 2 and 5.
Specify the chronological position of the pit complexes radiocarbon date received on all of the major burial mounds 1-4. First of all, they are mutually checked by data both on a tree, and on bones of the person. The earliest mound was mound 1, burial 1: 4820 ±55 BP (SPb–1854), 3626 – 3526 CAL sun; bone 4779 ± 50 BP (SPb–1853), 3621 –3522 cal sun. Kurgan 2, burial 1: wood 4535 ± 50 BP (SPb–2093), 3361 – 3112 cal BC; bone 4542 ± 70 BP (SPb–2092) 3365 – 3105 Sal sun. Burial 2(intake): 4075 ± 50 BP (SPb–2094), 2848 – 2496 CAL sun. Kurgan 3, burial 3 – 4620 ± 55 BP (SPb–1856), 3516 – 3346 cal sun; burial 4 – wood 4420 ± 55 BP (SPb–1858), 3308 – 2924 cal aircraft; bone 4565 ± 55 BP (SPb–1857), 3489 – 3115 CAL sun. Despite the absence of signs of cultural belonging mound 4 to the Pit-grave culture, 14C date indicates its relationship with its Repin stage. Date human bone: 4610 ± 70 BP (SPb–2095), 3517 – 3133 cal BC.
Analysis of the morphology of the profiles shows that the paleosols under all pit kurgans had the following structure А1са (depth up to 45 cm), АВса (up to 70 cm), В1са (up to 110 cm), В2са (up to 160 cm) and ВСса (up to 200 cm). The paleosols under kurgans 2, 5 stood out the most light grey shade of horizon A1, a pronounced fissure in horizons A1 and AB, clearly visible languages in the humus profile, the appearance of carbonate accumulation in the form of a clear white-eye soils already from a depth of 65 (70) cm, a distinct whitish tinge and a very strong seal of all the carbonate horizon at the expense of solid carbonate impregnation. The paleosols under kurgans 1, 3 and 4 were characterized by dark-grey humus horizon, a strong pitted profile including the horizon В2са, absence lingual lower boundary of the humus horizon in the profile of carbonate in the upper part expressed micellar shape, and the lower impregnation; carbonate horizons were sealed poorly.
The profiles of the studied modern soils had a similar structure of profiles to the second group of paleosols, only the lingual lower limit of the humus horizon was still quite clearly expressed in modern soils.
Based on the study of morphological and physical-chemical properties of background soils and paleosols buried under kurgans in the cemetery "Krasikovo I", based on the study of the archaeological data it is possible to draw the following conclusions:
- all studied soils homogeneous in particle-size distribution - light loam, that allows to consider the factor of climate as the most significant in the evolution of soils;
- the time of functioning of the burial ground was short, within 100-200 years and at the time of burial soils crashed on relatively early and late groups as evidenced by radiocarbon dates.
- in the pedo-chrono-sequence of buried soils of Krasikovo I burial ground, there are significant differences in properties between the selected groups of paleosols caused by fluctuations in climatic parameters;
- comparison of the humus content, carbonates and gypsum in selected groups of paleosols and background soils supports the conclusion that From the beginning to the end of the functioning of the burial ground and the successive construction of mounds in the soils of the chronology there was an increase in the "arid" signs.
- carbonate and gypsum content reflect dependence on atmospheric moisture and, thus, there is a tendency of greater humidification of the climate in our days compared to the early bronze age (the Repin stage of the Pit-grave culture).
Evolution of soils of the southern Urals in the Early Bronze Age on the basis of archaeological data (on an example of a burial ground Krasikovo I in Orenburg region). International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference : SGEM : Surveying Geology & mining Ecology Management; Sofia vol.18, edition 3.2, : 181-188. Sofia: Surveying Geology & Mining Ecology Management (SGEM). (2018) DOI:10.5593/sgem2018/3.2/S13.024
Paleoecological situation for the Kuban-Azov lowland, Russia at the Bronze Age based on pedological and palinological analyses of paleosols buried under kurgan Khokhlova O., Tregub T., Papkina A. In the collection Proceedings of 18 international multidisciplinary scientific geoconference SGEM 2018, серия 5.2 Ecology and Environmental Protection, place of publication "Alexander Malinov" Sofia, Bulgaria, vol. 20 DOI
Эволюция почв Южного Предуралья в эпоху ранней бронзы на основе геоархеологических данных (на примере могильника «Красиковский I» в Оренбургской области. Папкина А.Э., Курбанова Ф.Г., Пузанова Т.А., Хохлова О.С. В сборнике Материалы Всероссийской междисциплинарной научной конференции с международным участием «ПАЛЕОПОЧВЫ, ПАЛЕОЭКОЛОГИЯ, ПАЛЕЭКОНОМИКА», место издания Товарищество научных изданий КМК Пущино, с. 141-145.
Distribution of Corg, % (A) and Ccarb (B) in soils of the studied pedo-chrono-sequence:
The content of gypsum in soils of the studied pedo-chrono-sequence: